So your fish enjoy their tank as much as you do
Tetra Fish for Beginners

Tetras are one of the most easily-available groups of fish in the hobby. There are many species of tetras, and some are perfect for newcomers to fishkeeping. Other species are much more challenging, and best avoided unless you’ve kept tetras before.

Before you buy any tetra, know this: tetras are schooling fish. This means they prefer to be kept in a group. Most species of tetras are happiest in groups of six or more of their own kind. Since you are buying multiple fish, it is even more important to check the size the tetras you want will grow to. Six six-inch bucktoothed tetras will need a lot more room than six 1.2-1.5 inch Neon Tetras.

It is also good to know that most tetras are happiest in somewhat acidic water, although water requirements vary greatly by species. Some are a lot more particular about water pH and cleanliness than others.

Good tetras for beginners:

-Glowlight Tetra
-Pristella tetra
-Black Skirt, Black Widow, White Skirt (they are all the same species)
-Head and Tail Light Tetra
-Serpae Tetra (but can be fin nippers)
-Red-Eye Tetra (but gets bigger than most and can be fin nippers)

This is a partial list, as there are many tetras that some people find easy and others difficult. One reason for these differencs in opinion is local water conditions. Someone in an area with soft, acidic water conditions is likely to find keeping and breeding Cardinal tetras easier than someone in an area with hard, alkaline water. Cardinal tetras really do need the acidic water, while Red-Eye tetras do not.

Other factors: Neon tetra disease

Another factor that makes a difference to whether you’ll have success with a species is disease. Some tetras are more prone to Neon Tetra disease than others. This disease is very difficult to cure, and is impossible to cure with standard propriety aquarium remedies. It is contagious, and can often lie dormant. It then awakens when something stresses the fish. Do not buy fish with visible Neon Tetra disease, or susceptible species from a tank where any fish shows Neon Tetra disease. If you do this, you are setting yourself up for frustration and heartbreak.

Neon tetras used to have a good reputation for hardiness, but now the vast majority of them are mass-bred in the far east with no attention paid to health or quality. This means that the Neon Tetras you buy now are often carrying this parasite when you buy them and die easily. If you can get disease-free Neons they are great fish, but Neons with this disease aren’t worth buying no matter how low the price. I wouldn’t knowingly take Neons with this disease if they were free.

Neon Tetras are notoriously susceptible, but danios, cichlids and most charachins can be susceptible to Neon Tetra disease as well.

The most common recognisable symptom of Neon Tetra disease, Pleistophora hyphessobryconis, is loss of coloration with pale or white patches of skin, most commonly below the dorsal fish. There are also other symptoms that include spinal curvature, emaciation, fin deterioration and erratic swimming. Do not buy any fish that shows these symptoms!

Just to make life more complicated, there is a False Neon Tetra disease that shows many of the same symptoms. This is a bacterial infection that can be cured by antibiotics.

Most tetras you buy will be healthy and hardy when treated right, as well as peaceful and beautiful. Overall, they are good beginner fish if you can avoid those sick with Neon Tetra disease, as well as a few species that have special requirements.

Tetra fish for beginners to avoid:

-Rummynose Tetras (disease prone, sensitive to water quality)
-Cardinal Tetra (needs acidic water, if you have that they are easy)
-Emperor Tetra
-Bucktoothed Tetra (grows to 6in and can be predatory)
-Fruit Tetras (these are White Skirt tetras that have been dyed. The process is bad for the fish and they are more likely to get sick than regular White Skirts. The color wears off with time, too.)

Elizabeth @ 12:05 pm
Why Female Bettas Deserve More Attention

Given the stunning appearance of male Bettas, it isn’t surprising that female Bettas tend to get forgotten. However, they are interesting fish worthy of attention in their own right.

While their fins are shorter than males, many modern females are quite brightly colored. Indeed, if they were a separate species I think they might be quite popular.

Aggression in female Bettas

Female Bettas are much less aggressive than male Bettas. This makes them better community fish. Female Betta fish can often be kept in groups provided the tank is fairly large. They can be a bit aggressive towards other female Betta fish or towards gouramis. The extent to which this is an issue depends on the individual Betta. In any case, aggression is much less of an issue than with males.

Agression in female Bettas mainly consists of gill flaring at each other and some fin displays. They typically won’t hurt each other directly, but you may find that the less dominant fish gets stressed and becomes ill if one of your Bettas is much more aggressive than the other and the tank isn’t huge.

Dealing with aggression issues

For this reason, it is best to have a backup plan if you are keeping more than one female Betta in a tank of under 20 gallons. It is also better to keep a group of three or more rather than two because this means the dominant fish has more subdominant fish to bully and can’t concentrate exclusively on one fish. Plants and tank decorations that provide hiding places for less dominant fish are also good.

The easiest situation is still to keep one female Betta fish in with other species. You are vastly less likely to experience problems with a female Betta bullying your other fish than with a male Betta, and because her fins are relatively short she is less likely to get her fins nipped.

Breeding Bettas

Female Bettas are not good tankmates for male Bettas because the males will harass the female until she mates. They then protect the bubblenest from all comers, including her. In the confines of the typical aquarium she could easily be hurt or killed. When breeding Betta fish, it is best to supervise the introduction of the female and mating. You can then remove her after mating is completed.

If you have a very large aquarium, then it may be possible to keep a single male with a group of females, since he will have to split his attention between several fish and they will have room to get out of his way while he is guarding the nest. If you do, you should see some fascinating breeding behaviour. Be aware that in aquariums that aren’t large enough, he is likely to try to guard the entire tank. This is dangerous for the females.

Caring for female Bettas

Female Betta fish have the same requirements as males in terms of pH, access to air, plants, temperature, and no fast water movement. They prefer mildly alkaline to acidic water and temperatures of 75F or higher. The female’s lower aggression makes these needs easier to meet as they are easier to place in an aquarium with other tropical fishes, filtration and a heater.

Elizabeth @ 9:53 am
Fish That Can Live With Your Betta

Can other fish live with Bettas? And if so, which ones? The answer depends on whether your Betta is male or female, and on the individual Betta. Female Betta fish are much less aggressive than males. They also have shorter fins that are less likely to be fin-nipped. This makes them better suited to the community aquarium than male Bettas are, but even some individual male Bettas can be kept with some other species of fish.

There are a couple of other factors you need to consider when deciding if you can have fish in with your Betta. They are the size of your tank, and the number of plants and other objects present in the tank.

The larger the tank, the easier it is for a fish to stay away from bullies. The more plants and other decorations there are, the more hiding spots and visual barriers there are. This means an aggressive fish will have to work harder to find fishes to bully.

What not to keep with male Bettas

Male Betta fish must not be kept with other male Bettas, and should not be kept with female Bettas in all but the largest of tanks. Other fish that get along very badly with male Bettas include small gouramis and guppies. Male Bettas mistake these for other male Bettas and will attack and harass them unmercifully. Guppies are likely to get killed by an angry male Betta. Bettas are especially likely to attack red fish, so avoiding fish that are this color may help avoid problems in your tank.

Large gouramis may harass Bettas. In general, gouramis get along badly with Bettas no matter which is being the aggressor. Barbs or any other fish that likes to fin-nip are also a bad idea as they will harass your Betta and damage its fins. Tiger barbs are notorious for this. Large fish that swim quickly may frighten your Betta, and if your Betta is in a tank full of greedy feeders such as barbs it will probably be outcompeted for food.

Fish that can coexist with Bettas

So what fish can live with a male Betta? Tetras other than Serpaes, which are red and sometimes nip other fish’s fins, may work. Corydoras catfish are also an excellent bet as they are extremely peaceful and look very different from another Betta. Angelfish, platies and mollies may also work, although you may want to avoid red fish unless they are angelfish that are larger than the Betta.

It is also best to have more than one other fish, so that any Betta aggression gets dispersed over multiple fish. Tetras and Corydoras are happier and more confident in groups anyway, as schooling is a defense against predators in the wild.

Female Bettas

Female Bettas are less aggressive than males. They also lack the long fins, which makes them less interesting to fin-nipping fish. This makes them much easier to fit into the community tank. They can still be aggressive towards each other and towards small gouramis, but you are much less likely to run into problems that are unmanageable.


There are fish that can live with Bettas, but it is best to be careful. Bettas vary in temperament and some are much more aggressive than others. If you buy a double-sized fry trap this can be used to temporarily separate an aggressive fish or to protect a timid one. Be sure that the Betta has access to the surface while in the trap, as Bettas need atmospheric air. These fry traps are useful as using one gives you time to find a more permanent solution.

Elizabeth @ 8:45 am
What to Look For in a Good Fish Store

There are many pet stores that sell aquarium fish. Some of them specialize in fish, while others are general pet stores or pet stores that primarily focus on something else. You can even find some fish supplies at Walmart and some supermarkets. So how do you pick where to buy your aquarium supplies and, most importantly, the fish themselves?

General pet stores

Pet stores vary a lot when considered from an aquatic perspective. Pet stores often have parts of the pet hobby that they specialize in. Sometimes it’s fish, or it might be birds or dog accessories and grooming. As a fishkeeper, you will be better off picking a pet store that specializes in fish. In stores with a fish specialty the fish are likely to be healthier, there will be a wider range of species available, a wider range of equipment available, and the staff are much more likely to be able to answer your questions correctly. Sometimes a general pet store will have one staff person who specializes in dealing with the fish. If that is the case, find out when their hours are and come in when they are working if you can.

The good thing about general pet stores is that you are more likely to be able to find one close to home than a specialist fish store, and if you are a beginning aquarist a decent pet store will have everything you need.

A word on big box chain petstores: these will often have a fairly wide range of equipment and sometimes fish available, but getting decent help is erratic. I much prefer smaller or more specialized stores where you can get to know the staff, and where you can find the staff when you need them.

Specialist fish stores and pet stores with a strong fish specialty

There is a bit of overlap between general pet stores and specialized aquatics and fish stores. These stores are frequently wonderful because the staff are often skilled aquarists themselves with years or even decades of experience. This means you can get even esoteric questions answered, and you are less likely to get bad advice. You are also likely to be able to find the exact equipment or species that you are looking for, or to be able to order it in if it is really unusual. If you keep saltwater fish, you will have to find one of these stores because you won’t find what you need anywhere else.

Unfortunately, despite fish being their main business some of these stores aren’t as good as they should be. I once visited one where they were unloading large numbers of dead and dying saltwater fish. I don’t know why this was happening, but the staff did not apear shocked and I never went back to the store again.

How can you tell if a fish store is any good?

Fish stores to avoid:

1)Dead fish present in many tanks.
2)Visible illness such as ich present in a tank with no attempt to treat it.
3)Staff cannot identify common aquarium fish such as swordtails and bleeding heart tetras correctly. (Be aware that some fish have multiple trade names – in this case a strange name isn’t a sign of incompetence.)
4)Staff give incorrect care instructions for common fish – for example saying that Cory cats will eat fish poo and don’t need food of their own.
5)Houseplants such as palms being sold as water plants.
6)Staff are constantly so busy you can’t get attention or help, or they are rude.
7)Staff try to sell you a visibly ill fish.

Fish stores to buy from:

1)Fish are healthy, and if there are tanks with ich the disease is being treated and fish are not being sold out of that tank.
2)Staff answer basic questions about fish and equipment correctly.
3)A variety of fish, plants and equipment adequate for what you want to do. Needs vary dramatically if you want to keep a few guppies as opposed to a living reef aquarium.
4)If you are keeping live corals, staff have captive-grown corals and can tell you which ones they are.
5)Fish and plants are identified accurately on or near the tank itself.
6)Staff are attentive and helpful.
7)If you are keeping unusual or difficult fish it is really helpful to have staff who are expert aquarists.
8)Staff ask you questions when you buy fish, checking to make sure you have appropriate equipment and your tank has been set up long enough. If you are an experienced fishkeeper you might find this annoying, but remember that they don’t know how long you’ve been keeping fish and asking questions like this is a good way of keeping newcomers from making easily avoidable mistakes.

If you find a truly excellent store, then take your money there every time you buy if at all possible. You want that store to stay in business so that when you come in trying to figure out what the obscure disease killing your marine angels is they will still be there. It may be a bit further from home or more expensive, but the quality of livestock, service and equipment is likely to be more than worth the price.


While places like Walmart are often cheapest, this shows in the quality of the things they sell. Do you really want to buy an aquarium and then realize that almost no aquarium plants will grow in it and you have to turn off the light on warm days because the light fixture is incandescent? The selection of equipment is typically very limited, and they generally don’t sell live fish. The salespeople are not hired for their expertise with fish and are highly unlikely to be able to give you useful advice.

This is a very poor option – you are probably better off buying second hand equipment that is of higher quality if you are short of money, and then patronizing a pet or specialized fish store for everything you buy new.

Elizabeth @ 9:24 am
Staying Legal WIth Crayfish

One thing would-be crayfish keepers need to know is that not all crayfish are legal to keep everywhere. In Britain, the only crayfish you may legally keep is Cherax quadricarinatus, the Redfin Crayfish. The reason for this is that many crayfish are native to mountain streams with quite cool water even if they come from tropical countries. This means that they could potentially survive in temperate waters such as Britain’s. This means they could also potentially survive in many areas of the USA and other temperate areas, whether or not they are legal there. There are rules on at least some species of non-native crayfish in the US, although I am not sure of the details.

The other reason these crayfish are banned in Britain is because they can carry disease which could harm the native crayfish. Unfortunately, there are crayfish being sold illegally in Britain including the Mexican Orange Dwarf Crayfish, Cambarellus patzcuarensis. For more information on this issue, please see Practical Fish Keeping. It is still a problem.

Please only buy species legal in your area, and don’t release any pet fish or invertebrate into the wild.

Elizabeth @ 7:49 am
Pond Fish: Goldfish and Koi
Filed under: cold water fish andpond fish

For comparison with the fish in the previous post, here are Goldfish and Koi.


Koi are definitely the kings of the pond. They are meant to be viewed from above, and the spectacular colors they come in are designed with this in mind. They are a selectively bred form of the Asian Carp and German Carp. Koi are found in red, white, yellow, gold, orange, silver, greyish-blue, black and lots of combinations of these colors. Some Koi have long fins, but most do not. Whatever their color scheme, Koi are very elegant-looking fish.

The keys to keeping Koi are a large enough pond and good filtration. They are only suited for ponds of 1000gal or
more because they grow over three feet long. They can reach two feet in only three years, which means that you need to have the space they’ll need available now, not ten years from now. They are gentle fish, and can be taught to take food from your hand. They will not harm small Koi or Goldfish, although fancy Goldfish may have difficulty getting their share of the food when competing with Koi.

Koi are very cold-hardy fish, and so long as a small area of the surface remains unfrozen for gas exchange and the water is three feet deep with water of 34F or higher for them to be dormant in they should be fine. This is good, because you are unlikely to be able to house multiple three foot long fish in your house over the winter.

Koi vary widely in price. Ordinary young Koi can be acquired for as little as $10, while a prize-winning Koi could set you back over $100,000. Of all the pond fish, these truly are king.


Like Koi, Goldfish are very cold-hardy. Fortunately, Goldfish only grow to about 12 inches, usually somewhat less. This means they are suitable for much smaller ponds than koi are.

They still need the pond to have an area of two feet or deeper for winter dormancy and to hide from predators.

Goldfish come in many varieties. The most common variety is the Common Goldfish, but there are also dozens of more fancy varieties. Generally, the more fancy the variety, the harder the time it will have in a pond. Goldfish without dorsal fins or with very small double tail fins swim slowly and have more difficulty escaping from predators. They will also have a harder time competing for food with less oddly-shaped goldfish or koi. Bubble-eyes and Celestials are vulnerable to eye injuries. Goldfish like these are better suited to aquariums or indoor ponds in houses without pets that are likely to play predator.

Goldfish such as Common Goldfish, Shubunkins, and Comets are more able to take care of themselves in pond situations and are better choices for your outdoor pond. Double-tailed varieties with dorsal fins such as telescope eyes, fantails and orandas fall somewhere in between. One advantage of buying Common Goldfish or Comets, many of which are actually Common Goldfish, is that they are usually the cheapest goldfish to buy, so if you have an unusually hard winter or get visited by a heron you haven’t lost large amounts of money as well as your pets.

Protection against predators:

Whatever type of fish you have, protecting them against predators is important if you want to keep them in your pond.

-Create a 2ft or deeper area in the pond.
-Submerged and floating plants provide hiding places.
-Install a heron decoy – remove during the breeding season or it can attract rather than repel herons.
-Use milk crates as support for marginal plants – they double as hiding spots for small fish.
-Use a floating decoy fish – when a predator attacks it, the real fish can flee.
-Buy dull-colored fish – there’s a reason most wild fish don’t have bright orange backs.

Other Considerations:

Before you buy any pond fish, remember that you must not introduce them into wild ponds or anywhere they might be able to get into natural waters.

Elizabeth @ 8:28 am
Pond Fish That Are Neither Koi Nor Goldfish

In addition to the omnipresent Goldfish and spectacular Koi, there are other, often smaller fish that could be perfect for your particular pond. Rosy Red Minnow, Golden Orfe, White Cloud Mountain Minnow, and Mosquitofish are all possibilities.

Rosy Red Minnow, Fathead Minnow

This fish’s ideal temperatures are 10-21C, but it can survive much lower temperatures. The Fathead Minnow overwinters in Canadian boreal lakes. That said, it tends to have a high winterkill. Rosy Red Minnows grow approximately four inches in length. They are naturally greenish, but there is a very pretty pinkish-gold variety, which is why they have two names. You may be able to find this fish in your local aquarium store, possibly as feeder fish.

The Rosy Red Minnow can be a source of enteric red mouth disease for native european fish. Therefore, they should not be allowed to let them come in contact with each other.

Golden Orfe

The Golden Orfe grows to approximately 18 inches in length. While Golden Orfe are very pretty fish, they need to be kept in a school of at least three. They are also fussier about water quality than Goldfish or Koi, which is probably why they are less often kept than either Koi or Goldfish.

White Cloud Mountain Minnow

White Cloud Mountain Minnows only grow to 1.75 inches or less, making them the smallest of the fish discussed here. This fish is somewhat more sensitive to cold than other fish discussed here. It can survive down to 5C. Fortunately, their small size means that they can be moved into an aquarium for the winter without the sort of problems you would have doing the same thing with a large species like Koi.

The White Cloud Mountain Minnow is native to streams and prefers clean, well oxygenated water. It would probably make an excellent inhabitants for ponds with a waterfall or streamlike section, or for fountains.

Mosquito Fish (Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki)

The Mosquito Fish is an interesting fish for very small ponds. It grows to 2.8 inches or less, and is more resistant to extreme temperatures of between 1.5-35C as well as to low dissolved oxygen. Of the two species, G. affinis is slightly more adapted to cold and holbrooki to heat. However, temperature tolerance varies depending on the population and its specific adaptations. Winter mortality of Gambusia tends to be high. Gambusia are closely related to the guppy, and are livebearers. They are probably most useful for very small ponds where the water can get very warm, such as container water gardens.

One problem to bear in mind with Gambusia especially is that they have a history of being an invasive species. This means that you must be even more careful never to allow them near natural water bodies.

Other Considerations

Before you buy any pond fish, remember that you must not introduce them into wild ponds or anywhere they might be able to get into natural waters. Some of the above fish, especially Mosquito Fish and White Cloud Mountain Minnows, are a bit too good at adapting to natural waters. The Mosquito Fish has been the cause of native fishes in New Zealand having local populations eliminated, and it is also a threat to native dragonflies and other aquatic invertebrates. They are also illegal in some areas. Check the legality of owning fish such as Gambusia or WC Mountain Minnows before introducing them to your man-made pond.

Elizabeth @ 10:14 am
Christmas Gifts for Fish Keepers: Single Aquarium Keepers

The best gift for a fishkeeper really depends on what area of the hobby they are into, and how serious they are. Here’s some ideas on good gifts for different situations:

Adult Tropical Hobbyist with a Single Tank.
One of the most common situations. Snoop around a little to see what equipment they have. Equipment they might need:
-pH/ammonia/nitrite test kits. These save fish lives, but too many people don’t buy them.
-spare heater
-fluorescent light bulb of correct size and shape. These do burn out.
-fluorescent light hood. Vastly better than incandescent.
-filter inserts for their particular filter
-frozen fish food
-aquarium salt. Useful medication for several diseases, and really cheap. Also good for a few species to have permenantly in their water.
-aquarium thermometer. Essential and extremely cheap.
-hospital/quarantine tank. 5 gal tank with heater and mechanical filter. It is really, really useful to be able to quarantine sick or newly acquired fish. Second hand tanks are a good way to find these cheap.
-general aquarium book

Child with A Single Small Unheated Aquarium
-fish tank decorations. Many children adore these and they are really easy to find in any petstore. They are often among the cheapest fishtank related gifts.
-a ten gallon kit. If the child shows real interest in their aquarium, get them decent equipment. A lot of the little plastic kits are nearly junk. If a plastick kit has goldfish in them, goldfish that live more than a year or so will outgrow the tank.
-a small filter. Many of these tanks don’t come with them and it really improves tank conditions and the ease of keeping fish.
-LED tank light. Looks pretty, uses little energy and now you can grow low-light live plants.

Adult with Single Cold Water Tank
-pH/ammonia/nitrite test kits. These save fish lives, but too many people don’t buy them.
-fluorescent light bulb of correct size and shape. These do burn out.
-fluorescent light hood. Vastly better than incandescent.
-filter inserts for their particular filter
-frozen fish food
-Aquarium salt. Useful for treatment of some diseases and very cheap.
-hospital/quarantine tank. 5 gal tank with mechanical filter. It is really, really useful to be able to quarantine sick or newly acquired fish. Second hand tanks are a good way to find these cheap.
-general aquarium book

Elizabeth @ 11:54 am
Christmas Gifts for Fish Keepers: The Incipient Aquarium Hobbyist

So you have a friend or family member who wants a fish tank?  Here are some basic suggestions of possible gifts that they will love.

The best gift here is probably a 10 gallon aquarium kit.  These usually come with everything required (though they often lack a heater) and are much better value for money than buying everything new separately.  Ten gallons is large enough to have a decent choice of species, yet small enough to keep costs down and be easy to find space for.   Five gallon kits are cheaper but they are much more restricted in terms of what you can keep in them.  If you have the money, 20 gallon kits allow a wider choice of species and decor, as well as increased stability in tank conditions which may make fishkeeping a little easier.

If you are short of money, check the web for second hand equipment.  Be careful to look over what you are buying carefully.  Remember that because it’s second hand, some of it may well be mismatched, missing or not work.  You may well end up buying the problem items new and this can raise the costs above what you initially estimated.  Been there, done that.  Even so, it can still be a lot cheaper than buying new.

Many people buy plastic kits that are cheaper than glass.  These are not such a good idea for a couple of reasons.  Most of these kits lack lighting, they scratch more easily and so don’t last as well, they don’t come with heaters, many heaters aren’t safe for use in them, and they may also lack a filter.  Many of them are also too small for anything other than a Betta or some shrimp.  If your budget is limited, I recommend second hand glass aquaria over these.

Another excellent gift is a book on aquarium keeping.  There’s a lot to aquarium keeping and having a decent book constantly on hand is a good way to prevent mishaps and respond to emergencies.

If the person you are buying for isn’t yet ready for fish, or isn’t sure that an aquarium is right for them, a book can give them a good idea of whether it is what they really want, and what type of aquarium would be best for them.

Don’ts when buying for new fishkeepers:

-Don’t buy the fish at the same time as the tank.  Get them after the aquarium has been set up for two weeks with plants in it, or fully cycled by another method.

-Don’t buy a goldfish bowl for a goldfish.  Goldfish bowls are far too small for a large, waste-producing fish like a goldfish.

-Don’t buy live animals immediately before Christmas.  The stores will be insanely busy and the salespeople won’t have time to help you as much as they normally would.  In bad cases, the animals may also not be as well looked after because the staff get overwhelmed.  Buy the tank, then go back and buy fish once the tank is set up and cycled.

-Don’t buy any pet you aren’t sure they want.

Elizabeth @ 11:00 am
Fish For Your 5 Gallon Fish Tank

Nano tanks are quite popular, but it can sometimes be difficult to figure out what fish you should put in them.  Many aquarium fish grow too big, especially if you’re thinking of keeping schooling fish.  Then there’s the question of which fish is are compatible with each other.

Here are some suggestions for groups of fishes that are compatible inhabitants for 5 gallon tanks.  I have only included fish is that are at least relatively easy to keep.

Note: I am assuming a standard 5 gallon long tank. If your 5 gallon tank is tall and narrow, it will support fewer fish as it is surface area that determines the number of fish you can have. There are a variety of rules of thumb people use for determining number of fish. For a properly-filtered tank of standard proportions containing tropical species, a 5 gallon tank should contain no more than 10 inches of fish. I have kept the fish inches here to 8.5 or less because this leaves more room for equipment malfunction such as short power outages and human error.

Cold water fish need more space – no more than one inch of fish per gallon in a standard-sized tank.

The tanks:
5 gallon tank with plants and a pH of between 6 to 7.

Fish Tank One: Amazon Nano Aquarium 1
6 Neon Tetras
1 Otocinclus

Fish Tank Two: Amazon Nano Aquarium 2
6 Black Phantom Tetras

Fish Tank Three: Betta Bachelor Pad
1 male Betta

Fish Tank Four: Lady Betta and Frogs
1 female betta
2 dwarf frogs
1 Otocinclus

5 gallon tank with a pH of 6.5 to 7.5

Fish Tank Five: Subtropical Stream
4-5 White Cloud Mountain Minnows

Fish Tank Six: Mini Catfish Tank
6 Pygmy Corydoras
1 Otocinlus

5 gallon tank with plants and a pH of 7.0  to 7.6

Fish Tank Seven: Where’s the Fish?
8 shrimp of any mix of species that doesn’t exceed one inch, Cherry shrimp is a good beginner species
1 horned nerite snail

Fish Tank Eight: Guppies, Guppies, Guppies
5 Male Guppies
1 horned nerite snail

Elizabeth @ 11:24 am